When warm waters in the Southern Oceans get in contact with the floating ice shelves of the Antarctic ice sheet, the ice shelves melt.
A simple model for the flow of buoyant melt plumes below ice shelves reveals a complex pattern of melt below the Thwaites ice shelf. Detailed maps like these can be used to force ice sheet models in order to project future sea-level rise.
Amplification of extreme water levels due to projected sea-level rise by 2100 under three emission scenarios from the latest IPCC report (Oppenheimer et al. 2019).